MENY

Gällande vårdprogram lungcancer

Fastställt av Regionala cancercentrum i samverkan 2019-04-09.

23. Referenser

1. Nationella riktlinjer för lungcancervård. 2011. www.socialstyrelsen.se/riktlinjer/nationellariktlinjer.

2. Cancer Incidence in Sweden 2015. Socialstyrelsen 2015 (www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2017.

3. Dödsorsaker 2015. Socialstyrelsen 2016 (www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2016.

4. Koyi H, Hillerdal G, Branden E, Nordesjo LO. The 'reservoir' of undetected bronchial carcinomas in the general population. Lung cancer. 2002;37(2):137-42.

5. Cancer i siffror 2013. Socialstyrelsen 2013 (www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2013.

6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (http://eco.iarc.fr/eucan).

7. United States Cancer Statistics (https://nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/).

8. Wen C, Dehnel T. China wrestles with lung cancer. The Lancet Oncology. 2011;12(1):15.

9. Parodi S, Baldi R, Benco C, Franchini M, Garrone E, Vercelli M, et al. Lung cancer mortality in a district of La Spezia (Italy) exposed to air pollution from industrial plants. Tumori. 2004;90(2):181-5.

10. Simonato L, Agudo A, Ahrens W, Benhamou E, Benhamou S, Boffetta P, et al. Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in Europe: an update of risk estimates and an assessment of inter-country heterogeneity. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2001;91(6):876-87.

11. Agudo A, Ahrens W, Benhamou E, Benhamou S, Boffetta P, Darby SC, et al. Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women: a multicenter case-control study in Europe. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2000;88(5):820-7.

12. Pleasance ED, Stephens PJ, O'Meara S, McBride DJ, Meynert A, Jones D, et al. A small-cell lung cancer genome with complex signatures of tobacco exposure. Nature. 2010;463(7278):184-90.

13. Cancer Genome Atlas Research N. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers. Nature. 2012;489(7417):519-25.

14. Sarginson JE, Killen JD, Lazzeroni LC, Fortmann SP, Ryan HS, Schatzberg AF, et al. Markers in the 15q24 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster (CHRNA5-A3-B4) predict severity of nicotine addiction and response to smoking cessation therapy. American journal of medical genetics Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. 2011;156B(3):275-84.

15. Sorice R, Bione S, Sansanelli S, Ulivi S, Athanasakis E, Lanzara C, et al. Association of a variant in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster region to heavy smoking in the Italian population. European journal of human genetics : EJHG. 2011;19(5):593-6.

16. Lodovici M, Luceri C, Guglielmi F, Bacci C, Akpan V, Fonnesu ML, et al. Benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in leukocytes of smokers in relation to polymorphism of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, and mEH. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2004;13(8):1342-8.

17. Aklillu E, Ovrebo S, Botnen IV, Otter C, Ingelman-Sundberg M. Characterization of common CYP1B1 variants with different capacity for benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol epoxide formation from benzo[a]pyrene. Cancer research. 2005;65(12):5105-11.

18. Leng S, Stidley CA, Bernauer AM, Picchi MA, Sheng X, Frasco MA, et al. Haplotypes of DNMT1 and DNMT3B are associated with mutagen sensitivity induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide among smokers. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(7):1380-5.

19. Hancox RJ, Poulton R, Welch D, Olova N, McLachlan CR, Greene JM, et al. Accelerated decline in lung function in cigarette smokers is associated with TP53/MDM2 polymorphisms. Human genetics. 2009;126(4):559-65.

20. Tseng RC, Hsieh FJ, Shih CM, Hsu HS, Chen CY, Wang YC. Lung cancer susceptibility and prognosis associated with polymorphisms in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway genes: a multiple genotype-phenotype study. Cancer. 2009;115(13):2939-48.

21. Buch SC, Diergaarde B, Nukui T, Day RS, Siegfried JM, Romkes M, et al. Genetic variability in DNA repair and cell cycle control pathway genes and risk of smoking-related lung cancer. Molecular carcinogenesis. 2012;51 Suppl 1:E11-20.

22. Sun Z, Chen J, Aakre J, Marks RS, Garces YY, Jiang R, et al. Genetic variation in glutathione metabolism and DNA repair genes predicts survival of small-cell lung cancer patients. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2010;21(10):2011-6.

23. Leng S, Stidley CA, Liu Y, Edlund CK, Willink RP, Han Y, et al. Genetic determinants for promoter hypermethylation in the lungs of smokers: a candidate gene-based study. Cancer research. 2012;72(3):707-15.

24. Cote ML, Yoo W, Wenzlaff AS, Prysak GM, Santer SK, Claeys GB, et al. Tobacco and estrogen metabolic polymorphisms and risk of non-small cell lung cancer in women. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30(4):626-35.

25. de Andrade M, Li Y, Marks RS, Deschamps C, Scanlon PD, Olswold CL, et al. Genetic variants associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with and without lung cancer. Cancer prevention research. 2012;5(3):365-73.

26. Zhang J, Sarge KD. Identification of a polymorphism in the RING finger of human Bmi-1 that causes its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. FEBS letters. 2009;583(6):960-4.

27. Lee MO, Lee HJ, Kim MA, Kim EK, Lee JH, Heo JH, et al. p16Ink4a suppression of lung adenocarcinoma by Bmi-1 in the presence of p38 activation. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2011;6(3):423-31.

28. Zhang XY, Dong QG, Huang JS, Huang AM, Shi CL, Jin B, et al. The expression of stem cell-related indicators as a prognostic factor in human lung adenocarcinoma. Journal of surgical oncology. 2010;102(7):856-62.

29. Tan C, Xu HY, Zhang CY, Zhang H, Chen CM, Zhang WM, et al. Effect of CYP1A1 MSPI polymorphism on the relationship between TP53 mutation and CDKN2A hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer. Archives of medical research. 2011;42(8):669-76.

30. Choi JE, Park SH, Kim KM, Lee WK, Kam S, Cha SI, et al. Polymorphisms in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and the risk of primary lung cancer: a case-control study. BMC cancer. 2007;7:199.

31. Zhang W, Stabile LP, Keohavong P, Romkes M, Grandis JR, Traynor AM, et al. Mutation and polymorphism in the EGFR-TK domain associated with lung cancer. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2006;1(7):635-47.

32. McKibbin T, Zhao W, Tagen M, Daw NC, Furman WL, McGregor LM, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor polymorphisms and risk for toxicity in paediatric patients treated with gefitinib. European journal of cancer. 2010;46(11):2045-51.

33. Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(44):1157-61.

34. Garces YI, Yang P, Parkinson J, Zhao X, Wampfler JA, Ebbert JO, et al. The relationship between cigarette smoking and quality of life after lung cancer diagnosis. Chest. 2004;126(6):1733-41.

35. Parsons A, Daley A, Begh R, Aveyard P. Influence of smoking cessation after diagnosis of early stage lung cancer on prognosis: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;340:b5569.

36. Chen J, Qi Y, Wampfler JA, Jatoi A, Garces YI, Busta AJ, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on quality of life in small cell lung cancer patients. European journal of cancer. 2012;48(11):1593-601.

37. Rollnick, S., Miller, W. R. & (Author, C. C. B. Motivational Interviewing in Health Care: Helping Patients Change Behavior (The Guilford press, 2008).

38. Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011(2):CD006103.

39. Phs Guideline Update Panel L, Staff. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline executive summary. Respir Care. 2008;53(9):1217-22.

40. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(1):CD000146.

41. Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(1):CD000031.

42. Cole P, Morrison AS. Basic issues in population screening for cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1980;64(5):1263-72.

43. Patz EF, Jr., Goodman PC, Bepler G. Screening for lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(22):1627-33.

44. National Lung Screening Trial Research T, Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD, Black WC, Clapp JD, et al. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(5):395-409.

45. Manser R, Lethaby A, Irving LB, Stone C, Byrnes G, Abramson MJ, et al. Screening for lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013(6):CD001991.

46. Flehinger BJ, Kimmel M, Polyak T, Melamed MR. Screening for lung cancer. The Mayo Lung Project revisited. Cancer. 1993;72(5):1573-80.

47. International Early Lung Cancer Action Program I, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Libby DM, Pasmantier MW, Smith JP, et al. Survival of patients with stage I lung cancer detected on CT screening. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(17):1763-71.

48. Michael T. Jaklitsch, Francine L, et al. The American Association for Thoracic Surgery guidelines for lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography scans for lung cancer survivors and other high-risk groups. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:33-8.

49. Field JK, Smith RA, Aberle DR, et al. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report. J Thorac Oncol 2012;7:10-19.

50. Tammemagi MC, Katki HA, Hocking WG, Church TR, Caporaso N, Kvale PA, et al. Selection criteria for lung-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(8):728-36.

51. Aberle DR, Abtin F, Brown K. Computed tomography screening for lung cancer: has it finally arrived? Implications of the national lung screening trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2013;31(8):1002-8.

52. MacMahon H, Naidich DP, Goo JM, Lee KS, Leung ANC, Mayo JR, et al. Guidelines for Management of Incidental Pulmonary Nodules Detected on CT Images: From the Fleischner Society 2017. Radiology. 2017;284(1):228-43.

53. Lee SM, Park CM, Paeng JC, Im HJ, Goo JM, Lee HJ, et al. Accuracy and predictive features of FDG-PET/CT and CT for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of T1 non-small-cell lung cancer manifesting as a subsolid nodule. European radiology. 2012;22(7):1556-63.

54. Wu Y, Li P, Zhang H, Shi Y, Wu H, Zhang J, et al. Diagnostic value of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the detection of metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2013;132(2):E37-47.

55. Vernon J, Andruszkiewicz N, Schneider L, Schieman C, Finley CJ, Shargall Y, et al. Comprehensive Clinical Staging for Resectable Lung Cancer: Clinicopathological Correlations and the Role of Brain MRI. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2016;11(11):1970-5.

56. Zhang S-J, Zhang M, Zhou J, Zhang Q-D, Xu Q-Q, Xu X. Radial endobronchial ultrasonography with distance measurement through a thin bronchoscope for the diagnosis of malignant peripheral pulmonary lesions. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2018;7(1):80-7.

57. Vilmann P, Clementsen PF, Colella S, Siemsen M, De Leyn P, Dumonceau J-M, et al. Combined endobronchial and esophageal endosonography for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline, in cooperation with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). Endoscopy. 2015;47(6):c1-c.

58. Postmus PE, Kerr KM, Oudkerk M, Senan S, Waller DA, Vansteenkiste J, et al. Early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 2017;28(suppl_4):iv1-iv21.

59. Tournoy KG, De Ryck F, Vanwalleghem LR, Vermassen F, Praet M, Aerts JG, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound reduces surgical mediastinal staging in lung cancer: a randomized trial. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2008;177(5):531-5.

60. Nationella riktlinjer för lungcancer 2011. 2011 ed: Socialstyrelsen.

61. De Leyn P, Dooms C, Kuzdzal J, Lardinois D, Passlick B, Rami-Porta R, et al. Revised ESTS guidelines for preoperative mediastinal lymph node staging for non-small-cell lung cancer. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2014;45(5):787-98.

62. Gunluoglu MZ, Melek H, Medetoglu B, Demir A, Kara HV, Dincer SI. The validity of preoperative lymph node staging guidelines of European Society of Thoracic Surgeons in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2011;40(2):287-90.

63. Varela-Lema L, Fernandez-Villar A, Ruano-Ravina A. Effectiveness and safety of endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration: a systematic review. The European respiratory journal. 2009;33(5):1156-64.

64. Zhang R, Mietchen C, Kruger M, Wiegmann B, Golpon H, Dettmer S, et al. Endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration versus transcervical mediastinoscopy in nodal staging of non small cell lung cancer: a prospective comparison study. Journal of cardiothoracic surgery. 2012;7:51.

65. Salati M, Brunelli A. Risk Stratification in Lung Resection. Curr Surg Rep. 2016;4(11):37.

66. Brunelli A, Charloux A, Bolliger CT, Rocco G, Sculier JP, Varela G, et al. ERS/ESTS clinical guidelines on fitness for radical therapy in lung cancer patients (surgery and chemo-radiotherapy). The European respiratory journal. 2009;34(1):17-41.

67. Brunelli A, Kim AW, Berger KI, Addrizzo-Harris DJ. Physiologic evaluation of the patient with lung cancer being considered for resectional surgery: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013;143(5 Suppl):e166S-e90S.

68. Brunelli A. Stair-climbing test and lung surgery. Back to the future. Respiration. 2008;75(4):372-3.

69. Brunelli A, Xiumé F, Refai M, Salati M, Di Nunzio L, Pompili C, et al. Peak oxygen consumption measured during the stair-climbing test in lung resection candidates. Respiration. 2010;80(3):207-11.

70. Rodríguez M, Gómez MT, Jiménez MF, Aranda JL, Novoa N, Varela G. The risk of death due to cardiorespiratory causes increases with time after right pneumonectomy: a propensity score-matched analysis. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2013;44(1):93-7.

71. Wong J, Lam DP, Abrishami A, Chan MT, Chung F. Short-term preoperative smoking cessation and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 2012;59(3):268-79.

72. Yan TD, Black D, Bannon PG, McCaughan BC. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized trials on safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009;27(15):2553-62.

73. Li Z, Liu H, Li L. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus open lobectomy for stage I lung cancer: A meta-analysis of long-term outcomes. Exp Ther Med. 2012;3(5):886-92.

74. Sienel W, Dango S, Kirschbaum A, Cucuruz B, Horth W, Stremmel C, et al. Sublobar resections in stage IA non-small cell lung cancer: segmentectomies result in significantly better cancer-related survival than wedge resections. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2008;33(4):728-34.

75. Okada M, Nishio W, Sakamoto T, Uchino K, Yuki T, Nakagawa A, et al. Effect of tumor size on prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: the role of segmentectomy as a type of lesser resection. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2005;129(1):87-93.

76. Narsule CK, Ebright MI, Fernando HC. Sublobar versus lobar resection: current status. Cancer J. 2011;17(1):23-7.

77. Rusch VW, Asamura H, Watanabe H, Giroux DJ, Rami-Porta R, Goldstraw P, et al. The IASLC lung cancer staging project: a proposal for a new international lymph node map in the forthcoming seventh edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2009;4(5):568-77.

78. Lardinois D, De Leyn P, Van Schil P, Porta RR, Waller D, Passlick B, et al. ESTS guidelines for intraoperative lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2006;30(5):787-92.

79. Manser R, Wright G, Hart D, et al. Surgery for local and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Cochrane Library 2010. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004699.pub2.

80. Darling GE, Allen MS, Decker PA, Ballman K, Malthaner RA, Inculet RI, et al. Randomized trial of mediastinal lymph node sampling versus complete lymphadenectomy during pulmonary resection in the patient with N0 or N1 (less than hilar) non-small cell carcinoma: results of the American College of Surgery Oncology Group Z0030 Trial. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2011;141(3):662-70.

81. Malmberg R, Bergman B, Branehog I, Larsson S, Olling S, Wernstedt L. Lung cancer in West Sweden 1976-1985. A study of trends and survival with special reference to surgical treatment. Acta Oncol. 1996;35(2):185-92.

82. Lungcancer i Sverige. Uppsala. Jan 22: 1-53. 2018.

83. Hernando ML, Marks LB, Bentel GC, Zhou SM, Hollis D, Das SK, et al. Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity: a dose-volume histogram analysis in 201 patients with lung cancer. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2001;51(3):650-9.

84. Shi A, Zhu G, Wu H, Yu R, Li F, Xu B. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with severe acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:35.

85. Palma DA, Senan S, Oberije C, Belderbos J, de Dios NR, Bradley JD, et al. Predicting esophagitis after chemoradiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: an individual patient data meta-analysis. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2013;87(4):690-6.

86. Werner-Wasik M, Yorke E, Deasy J, Nam J, Marks LB. Radiation dose-volume effects in the esophagus. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S86-93.

87. Bradley J, Deasy JO, Bentzen S, El-Naqa I. Dosimetric correlates for acute esophagitis in patients treated with radiotherapy for lung carcinoma. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2004;58(4):1106-13.

88. Palma DA, Senan S, Tsujino K, Barriger RB, Rengan R, Moreno M, et al. Predicting radiation pneumonitis after chemoradiation therapy for lung cancer: an international individual patient data meta-analysis. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2013;85(2):444-50.

89. Gagliardi G, Constine LS, Moiseenko V, Correa C, Pierce LJ, Allen AM, et al. Radiation dose-volume effects in the heart. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S77-85.

90. Bradley JD, Paulus R, Komaki R, Masters G, Blumenschein G, Schild S, et al. Standard-dose versus high-dose conformal radiotherapy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without cetuximab for patients with stage IIIA or IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (RTOG 0617): a randomised, two-by-two factorial phase 3 study. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;16(2):187-99.

91. McWilliam A, Kennedy J, Hodgson C, Vasquez Osorio E, Faivre-Finn C, van Herk M. Radiation dose to heart base linked with poorer survival in lung cancer patients. European journal of cancer. 2017;85:106-13.

92. Onishi H, Araki T, Shirato H, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M, Gomi K, et al. Stereotactic hypofractionated high-dose irradiation for stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: clinical outcomes in 245 subjects in a Japanese multiinstitutional study. Cancer. 2004;101(7):1623-31.

93. Timmerman R, Papiez L, McGarry R, Likes L, DesRosiers C, Frost S, et al. Extracranial stereotactic radioablation: results of a phase I study in medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Chest. 2003;124(5):1946-55.

94. Nyman J, Johansson KA, Hulten U. Stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer--mature results for medically inoperable patients. Lung cancer. 2006;51(1):97-103.

95. Baumann P, Nyman J, Lax I, Friesland S, Hoyer M, Rehn Ericsson S, et al. Factors important for efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy of medically inoperable stage I lung cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients treated in the Nordic countries. Acta Oncol. 2006;45(7):787-95.

96. Baumann P, Nyman J, Hoyer M, Wennberg B, Gagliardi G, Lax I, et al. Outcome in a prospective phase II trial of medically inoperable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009;27(20):3290-6.

97. Onishi H, Shirato H, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M, Fujino M, Gomi K, et al. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HypoFXSRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: updated results of 257 patients in a Japanese multi-institutional study. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2007;2(7 Suppl 3):S94-100.

98. Onishi H, Shirato H, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M, Fujino M, Gomi K, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for operable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: can SBRT be comparable to surgery? International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2011;81(5):1352-8.

99. Nyman J, Hallqvist A, Lund JA, Brustugun OT, Bergman B, Bergstrom P, et al. SPACE - A randomized study of SBRT vs conventional fractionated radiotherapy in medically inoperable stage I NSCLC. Radiother Oncol. 2016;121(1):1-8.

100. Chang JY, Senan S, Paul MA, Mehran RJ, Louie AV, Balter P, et al. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy versus lobectomy for operable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of two randomised trials. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;16(6):630-7.

101. Greco C, Rosenzweig K, Cascini GL, Tamburrini O. Current status of PET/CT for tumour volume definition in radiotherapy treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer. 2007;57(2):125-34.

102. Hallqvist A, Alverbratt C, Strandell A, Samuelsson O, Bjorkander E, Liljegren A, et al. Positron emission tomography and computed tomographic imaging (PET/CT) for dose planning purposes of thoracic radiation with curative intent in lung cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiother Oncol. 2017;123(1):71-7.

103. Perez CA, Stanley K, Rubin P, Kramer S, Brady L, Perez-Tamayo R, et al. A prospective randomized study of various irradiation doses and fractionation schedules in the treatment of inoperable non-oat-cell carcinoma of the lung. Preliminary report by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Cancer. 1980;45(11):2744-53.

104. Bradley J. A review of radiation dose escalation trials for non-small cell lung cancer within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Semin Oncol. 2005;32(2 Suppl 3):S111-3.

105. Bradley J, Graham MV, Winter K, Purdy JA, Komaki R, Roa WH, et al. Toxicity and outcome results of RTOG 9311: a phase I-II dose-escalation study using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung carcinoma. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2005;61(2):318-28.

106. Belderbos JS, Heemsbergen WD, De Jaeger K, Baas P, Lebesque JV. Final results of a Phase I/II dose escalation trial in non-small-cell lung cancer using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2006;66(1):126-34.

107. van Baardwijk A, Wanders S, Boersma L, Borger J, Ollers M, Dingemans AM, et al. Mature results of an individualized radiation dose prescription study based on normal tissue constraints in stages I to III non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2010;28(8):1380-6.

108. Rosenman JG, Halle JS, Socinski MA, Deschesne K, Moore DT, Johnson H, et al. High-dose conformal radiotherapy for treatment of stage IIIA/IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer: technical issues and results of a phase I/II trial. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2002;54(2):348-56.

109. Bradley JD, Moughan J, Graham MV, Byhardt R, Govindan R, Fowler J, et al. A phase I/II radiation dose escalation study with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with inoperable stages I to III non-small-cell lung cancer: phase I results of RTOG 0117. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2010;77(2):367-72.

110. Hallqvist A, Bergstrom S, Bjorkestrand H, Svard AM, Ekman S, Lundin E, et al. Dose escalation to 84 Gy with concurrent chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC appears excessively toxic: Results from a prematurely terminated randomized phase II trial. Lung cancer. 2018;122:180-6.

111. Saunders M, Dische S, Barrett A, Harvey A, Gibson D, Parmar M. Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) versus conventional radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised multicentre trial. CHART Steering Committee. Lancet. 1997;350(9072):161-5.

112. Sause W, Kolesar P, Taylor SI, Johnson D, Livingston R, Komaki R, et al. Final results of phase III trial in regionally advanced unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, and Southwest Oncology Group. Chest. 2000;117(2):358-64.

113. Mauguen A, Le Pechoux C, Saunders MI, Schild SE, Turrisi AT, Baumann M, et al. Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy in lung cancer: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2012;30(22):2788-97.

114. Jassem J. Combined chemotherapy and radiation in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. The Lancet Oncology. 2001;2(6):335-42.

115. Chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis using updated data on individual patients from 52 randomised clinical trials. Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Collaborative Group. BMJ. 1995;311(7010):899-909.

116. Rowell NP, O'Rourke N P. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(4):CD002140.

117. Auperin A, Le Pechoux C, Pignon JP, Koning C, Jeremic B, Clamon G, et al. Concomitant radio-chemotherapy based on platin compounds in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a meta-analysis of individual data from 1764 patients. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2006;17(3):473-83.

118. Auperin A, Le Pechoux C, Rolland E, Curran WJ, Furuse K, Fournel P, et al. Meta-analysis of concomitant versus sequential radiochemotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2010;28(13):2181-90.

119. O'Rourke N, Roque IFM, Farre Bernado N, Macbeth F. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(6):CD002140.

120. Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y, Acimovic L, Djuric L. Randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1995;13(2):452-8.

121. Schaake-Koning C, van den Bogaert W, Dalesio O, Festen J, Hoogenhout J, van Houtte P, et al. Effects of concomitant cisplatin and radiotherapy on inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992;326(8):524-30.

122. Spigel DR, Greco FA, Zubkus JD, Murphy PB, Saez RA, Farley C, et al. Phase II trial of irinotecan, carboplatin, and bevacizumab in the treatment of patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2009;4(12):1555-60.

123. Antonia SJ, Villegas A, Daniel D, Vicente D, Murakami S, Hui R, et al. Durvalumab after Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(20):1919-29.

124. Senan S, Brade A, Wang LH, Vansteenkiste J, Dakhil S, Biesma B, et al. PROCLAIM: Randomized Phase III Trial of Pemetrexed-Cisplatin or Etoposide-Cisplatin Plus Thoracic Radiation Therapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2016;34(9):953-62.

125. Cakir S, Egehan I. A randomised clinical trial of radiotherapy plus cisplatin versus radiotherapy alone in stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer. 2004;43(3):309-16.

126. Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y, Acimovic L, Milisavljevic S. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy with or without concurrent low-dose daily carboplatin/etoposide for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomized study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1996;14(4):1065-70.

127. Nyman J, Friesland S, Hallqvist A, Seke M, Bergstrom S, Thaning L, et al. How to improve loco-regional control in stages IIIa-b NSCLC? Results of a three-armed randomized trial from the Swedish Lung Cancer Study Group. Lung cancer. 2009;65(1):62-7.

128. Hallqvist A, Wagenius G, Rylander H, Brodin O, Holmberg E, Loden B, et al. Concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy after docetaxel-cisplatin induction chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC: satellite--a phase II study from the Swedish Lung Cancer Study Group. Lung cancer. 2011;71(2):166-72.

129. Billiet C, Decaluwe H, Peeters S, Vansteenkiste J, Dooms C, Haustermans K, et al. Modern post-operative radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer may improve local control and survival: a meta-analysis. Radiother Oncol. 2014;110(1):3-8.

130. Corso CD, Rutter CE, Wilson LD, Kim AW, Decker RH, Husain ZA. Re-evaluation of the role of postoperative radiotherapy and the impact of radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer using the National Cancer Database. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2015;10(1):148-55.

131. Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, Riggi M, Hurteloup P, Mahe MA. Impact of postoperative radiation therapy on survival in patients with complete resection and stage I, II, or IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: the adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) Randomized Trial. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2008;72(3):695-701.

132. Patel SH, Ma Y, Wernicke AG, Nori D, Chao KS, Parashar B. Evidence supporting contemporary post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) using linear accelerators in N2 lung cancer. Lung cancer. 2014;84(2):156-60.

133. Jing X, Meng X, Sun X, Yu J. Delineation of clinical target volume for postoperative radiotherapy in stage IIIA-pN2 non-small-cell lung cancer. OncoTargets and therapy. 2016;9:823-31.

134. Kepka L, Bujko K, Bujko M, Matecka-Nowak M, Salata A, Janowski H, et al. Target volume for postoperative radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: results from a prospective trial. Radiother Oncol. 2013;108(1):61-5.

135. Hancock JG, Rosen JE, Antonicelli A, Moreno A, Kim AW, Detterbeck FC, et al. Impact of adjuvant treatment for microscopic residual disease after non-small cell lung cancer surgery. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2015;99(2):406-13.

136. Wang EH, Corso CD, Rutter CE, Park HS, Chen AB, Kim AW, et al. Postoperative Radiation Therapy Is Associated With Improved Overall Survival in Incompletely Resected Stage II and III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015;33(25):2727-34.

137. Thomas M, Rube C, Hoffknecht P, Macha HN, Freitag L, Linder A, et al. Effect of preoperative chemoradiation in addition to preoperative chemotherapy: a randomised trial in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. The Lancet Oncology. 2008;9(7):636-48.

138. van Meerbeeck JP, Kramer GW, Van Schil PE, Legrand C, Smit EF, Schramel F, et al. Randomized controlled trial of resection versus radiotherapy after induction chemotherapy in stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(6):442-50.

139. Albain KS, Swann RS, Rusch VW, Turrisi AT, 3rd, Shepherd FA, Smith C, et al. Radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with or without surgical resection for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374(9687):379-86.

140. Pless M, Stupp R, Ris HB, Stahel RA, Weder W, Thierstein S, et al. Induction chemoradiation in stage IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet. 2015;386(9998):1049-56.

141. McElnay PJ, Choong A, Jordan E, Song F, Lim E. Outcome of surgery versus radiotherapy after induction treatment in patients with N2 disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Thorax. 2015;70(8):764-8.

142. Gudbjartsson T, Gyllstedt E, Pikwer A, Jonsson P. Early surgical results after pneumonectomy for non-small cell lung cancer are not affected by preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2008;86(2):376-82.

143. Pignon JP, Arriagada R, Ihde DC, Johnson DH, Perry MC, Souhami RL, et al. A meta-analysis of thoracic radiotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(23):1618-24.

144. Fried DB, Morris DE, Poole C, Rosenman JG, Halle JS, Detterbeck FC, et al. Systematic review evaluating the timing of thoracic radiation therapy in combined modality therapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22(23):4837-45.

145. Coy P, Hodson I, Payne DG, Evans WK, Feld R, MacDonald AS, et al. The effect of dose of thoracic irradiation on recurrence in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer. Initial results of a Canadian Multicenter Randomized Trial. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 1988;14(2):219-26.

146. Faivre-Finn C, Snee M, Ashcroft L, Appel W, Barlesi F, Bhatnagar A, et al. Concurrent once-daily versus twice-daily chemoradiotherapy in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (CONVERT): an open-label, phase 3, randomised, superiority trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2017;18(8):1116-25.

147. Slotman BJ, Faivre-Finn C, van Tinteren H, Keijser A, Praag J, Knegjens J, et al. Which patients with ES-SCLC are most likely to benefit from more aggressive radiotherapy: A secondary analysis of the Phase III CREST trial. Lung cancer. 2017;108:150-3.

148. Turrisi AT, 3rd, Kim K, Blum R, Sause WT, Livingston RB, Komaki R, et al. Twice-daily compared with once-daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer treated concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(4):265-71.

149. Hallqvist A, Rylander H, Bjork-Eriksson T, Nyman J. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer limited-disease. Dose response, feasibility and outcome for patients treated in western Sweden, 1998-2004. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(7):969-74.

150. Gronberg BH, Halvorsen TO, Flotten O, Brustugun OT, Brunsvig PF, Aasebo U, et al. Randomized phase II trial comparing twice daily hyperfractionated with once daily hypofractionated thoracic radiotherapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(5):591-7.

151. Videtic GM, Belderbos JS, Spring Kong FM, Kepka L, Martel MK, Jeremic B. Report from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) consultants' meeting on elective nodal irradiation in lung cancer: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2008;72(2):327-34.

152. Auperin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP, Le Pechoux C, Gregor A, Stephens RJ, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(7):476-84.

153. Le Pechoux C, Dunant A, Senan S, Wolfson A, Quoix E, Faivre-Finn C, et al. Standard-dose versus higher-dose prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in complete remission after chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (PCI 99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212, and IFCT 99-01): a randomised clinical trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2009;10(5):467-74.

154. Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y, Nikolic N, Milicic B, Milisavljevic S, Dagovic A, et al. Role of radiation therapy in the combined-modality treatment of patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: A randomized study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1999;17(7):2092-9.

155. Slotman BJ, van Tinteren H, Praag JO, Knegjens JL, El Sharouni SY, Hatton M, et al. Use of thoracic radiotherapy for extensive stage small-cell lung cancer: a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9962):36-42.

156. Slotman B, Faivre-Finn C, Kramer G, Rankin E, Snee M, Hatton M, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(7):664-72.

157. Takahashi T, Yamanaka T, Seto T, Harada H, Nokihara H, Saka H, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation versus observation in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2017;18(5):663-71.

158. Fairchild A, Harris K, Barnes E, Wong R, Lutz S, Bezjak A, et al. Palliative thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer: a systematic review. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(24):4001-11.

159. Le Chevalier T, Brisgand D, Soria JC, Douillard JY, Pujol JL, Ruffie P, et al. Long term analysis of survival in the European randomized trial comparing vinorelbine/cisplatin to vindesine/cisplatin and vinorelbine alone in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Oncologist. 2001;6 Suppl 1:8-11.

160. Stout R, Barber P, Burt P, Hopwood P, Swindell R, Hodgetts J, et al. Clinical and quality of life outcomes in the first United Kingdom randomized trial of endobronchial brachytherapy (intraluminal radiotherapy) vs. external beam radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2000;56(3):323-7.

161. Pignon JP, Tribodet H, Scagliotti GV, Douillard JY, Shepherd FA, Stephens RJ, et al. Lung adjuvant cisplatin evaluation: a pooled analysis by the LACE Collaborative Group. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(21):3552-9.

162. Bria E, Gralla RJ, Raftopoulos H, Cuppone F, Milella M, Sperduti I, et al. Magnitude of benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Lung cancer. 2009;63(1):50-7.

163. Group NM-aC, Arriagada R, Auperin A, Burdett S, Higgins JP, Johnson DH, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy, with or without postoperative radiotherapy, in operable non-small-cell lung cancer: two meta-analyses of individual patient data. Lancet. 2010;375(9722):1267-77.

164. Burdett S, Pignon JP, Tierney J, Tribodet H, Stewart L, Le Pechoux C, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015(3):CD011430.

165. Burdett SS, Stewart LA, Rydzewska L. Chemotherapy and surgery versus surgery alone in non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(3):CD006157.

166. Scagliotti GV, Pastorino U, Vansteenkiste JF, Spaggiari L, Facciolo F, Orlowski TM, et al. Randomized phase III study of surgery alone or surgery plus preoperative cisplatin and gemcitabine in stages IB to IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2012;30(2):172-8.

167. Lim E, Harris G, Patel A, Adachi I, Edmonds L, Song F. Preoperative versus postoperative chemotherapy in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer: systematic review and indirect comparison meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2009;4(11):1380-8.

168. Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, Yang CH, Chu DT, Saijo N, et al. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(10):947-57.

169. Mitsudomi T, Morita S, Yatabe Y, Negoro S, Okamoto I, Tsurutani J, et al. Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2010;11(2):121-8.

170. Maemondo M, Inoue A, Kobayashi K, Sugawara S, Oizumi S, Isobe H, et al. Gefitinib or chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer with mutated EGFR. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(25):2380-8.

171. Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, Feng J, Liu XQ, Wang C, et al. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. The Lancet Oncology. 2011;12(8):735-42.

172. Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R, Vergnenegre A, Massuti B, Felip E, et al. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2012;13(3):239-46.

173. Gao G, Ren S, Li A, Xu J, Xu Q, Su C, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is effective as first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with mutated EGFR: A meta-analysis from six phase III randomized controlled trials. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer. 2012;131(5):E822-9.

174. Sequist LV, Yang JC, Yamamoto N, O'Byrne K, Hirsh V, Mok T, et al. Phase III study of afatinib or cisplatin plus pemetrexed in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2013;31(27):3327-34.

175. Yang JC, Wu YL, Schuler M, Sebastian M, Popat S, Yamamoto N, et al. Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;16(2):141-51.

176. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK, Wu G, Liu X, Zhong Z, et al. First-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: analyses from the phase III, randomized, open-label, ENSURE study. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2015;26(9):1883-9.

177. Wu YL, Zhou C, Hu CP, Feng J, Lu S, Huang Y, et al. Afatinib versus cisplatin plus gemcitabine for first-line treatment of Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations (LUX-Lung 6): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2014;15(2):213-22.

178. Park K, Tan EH, O'Byrne K, Zhang L, Boyer M, Mok T, et al. Afatinib versus gefitinib as first-line treatment of patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (LUX-Lung 7): a phase 2B, open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2016;17(5):577-89.

179. Choi YW, Jeon SY, Jeong GS, Lee HW, Jeong SH, Kang SY, et al. EGFR Exon 19 Deletion is Associated With Favorable Overall Survival After First-line Gefitinib Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. Am J Clin Oncol. 2016.

180. Mok TS, Wu YL, Ahn MJ, Garassino MC, Kim HR, Ramalingam SS, et al. Osimertinib or Platinum-Pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(7):629-40.

181. Solomon BJ, Mok T, Kim DW, Wu YL, Nakagawa K, Mekhail T, et al. First-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(23):2167-77.

182. Soria JC, Tan DSW, Chiari R, Wu YL, Paz-Ares L, Wolf J, et al. First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2017;389(10072):917-29.

183. Peters S, Camidge DR, Shaw AT, Gadgeel S, Ahn JS, Kim DW, et al. Alectinib versus Crizotinib in Untreated ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(9):829-38.

184. Gettinger SN, Bazhenova LA, Langer CJ, Salgia R, Gold KA, Rosell R, et al. Activity and safety of brigatinib in ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer and other malignancies: a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2016;17(12):1683-96.

185. Ou SH, Ahn JS, De Petris L, Govindan R, Yang JC, Hughes B, et al. Alectinib in Crizotinib-Refractory ALK-Rearranged Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase II Global Study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2016;34(7):661-8.

186. Shaw AT, Ou SH, Bang YJ, Camidge DR, Solomon BJ, Salgia R, et al. Crizotinib in ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(21):1963-71.

187. Reck M, Rodriguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, Hui R, Csoszi T, Fulop A, et al. Pembrolizumab versus Chemotherapy for PD-L1-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):1823-33.

188. Group NM-AC. Chemotherapy in addition to supportive care improves survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 16 randomized controlled trials. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(28):4617-25.

189. Ardizzoni A, Boni L, Tiseo M, Fossella FV, Schiller JH, Paesmans M, et al. Cisplatin- versus carboplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: an individual patient data meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(11):847-57.

190. Soon YY, Stockler MR, Askie LM, Boyer MJ. Duration of chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009;27(20):3277-83.

191. Lima JP, dos Santos LV, Sasse EC, Sasse AD. Optimal duration of first-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. European journal of cancer. 2009;45(4):601-7.

192. Rossi A, Chiodini P, Sun JM, O'Brien ME, von Plessen C, Barata F, et al. Six versus fewer planned cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. The Lancet Oncology. 2014;15(11):1254-62.

193. Ciuleanu T, Brodowicz T, Zielinski C, Kim JH, Krzakowski M, Laack E, et al. Maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care for non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2009;374(9699):1432-40.

194. Paz-Ares LG, de Marinis F, Dediu M, Thomas M, Pujol JL, Bidoli P, et al. PARAMOUNT: Final overall survival results of the phase III study of maintenance pemetrexed versus placebo immediately after induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2013;31(23):2895-902.

195. Johnson DH, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny WF, Herbst RS, Nemunaitis JJ, Jablons DM, et al. Randomized phase II trial comparing bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel with carboplatin and paclitaxel alone in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22(11):2184-91.

196. Niho S, Kunitoh H, Nokihara H, Horai T, Ichinose Y, Hida T, et al. Randomized phase II study of first-line carboplatin-paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab in Japanese patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung cancer. 2012;76(3):362-7.

197. Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, Liu X, Zhu Y, Lu S, et al. BEYOND: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Phase III Study of First-Line Carboplatin/Paclitaxel Plus Bevacizumab or Placebo in Chinese Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2015;33(19):2197-204.

198. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, Brahmer J, Schiller JH, Dowlati A, et al. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(24):2542-50.

199. Reck M, von Pawel J, Zatloukal P, Ramlau R, Gorbounova V, Hirsh V, et al. Phase III trial of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either placebo or bevacizumab as first-line therapy for nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: AVAil. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2009;27(8):1227-34.

200. Seto T, Kato T, Nishio M, Goto K, Atagi S, Hosomi Y, et al. Erlotinib alone or with bevacizumab as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations (JO25567): an open-label, randomised, multicentre, phase 2 study. The Lancet Oncology. 2014;15(11):1236-44.

201. Thatcher N, Hirsch FR, Luft AV, Szczesna A, Ciuleanu TE, Dediu M, et al. Necitumumab plus gemcitabine and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin alone as first-line therapy in patients with stage IV squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (SQUIRE): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;16(7):763-74.

202. Brahmer J, Reckamp KL, Baas P, Crino L, Eberhardt WE, Poddubskaya E, et al. Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Squamous-Cell Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(2):123-35.

203. Borghaei H, Paz-Ares L, Horn L, Spigel DR, Steins M, Ready NE, et al. Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(17):1627-39.

204. Herbst RS, Baas P, Kim DW, Felip E, Perez-Gracia JL, Han JY, et al. Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10027):1540-50.

205. Rittmeyer A, Barlesi F, Waterkamp D, Park K, Ciardiello F, von Pawel J, et al. Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017;389(10066):255-65.

206. Shepherd FA, Dancey J, Ramlau R, Mattson K, Gralla R, O'Rourke M, et al. Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus best supportive care in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2000;18(10):2095-103.

207. Hanna N, Shepherd FA, Fossella FV, Pereira JR, De Marinis F, von Pawel J, et al. Randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with chemotherapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22(9):1589-97.

208. Reck M, Kaiser R, Mellemgaard A, Douillard JY, Orlov S, Krzakowski M, et al. Docetaxel plus nintedanib versus docetaxel plus placebo in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (LUME-Lung 1): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2014;15(2):143-55.

209. Garon EB, Ciuleanu TE, Arrieta O, Prabhash K, Syrigos KN, Goksel T, et al. Ramucirumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus docetaxel for second-line treatment of stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer after disease progression on platinum-based therapy (REVEL): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2014;384(9944):665-73.

210. Soria JC, Felip E, Cobo M, Lu S, Syrigos K, Lee KH, et al. Afatinib versus erlotinib as second-line treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (LUX-Lung 8): an open-label randomised controlled phase 3 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;16(8):897-907.

211. Planchard D, Smit EF, Groen HJM, Mazieres J, Besse B, Helland A, et al. Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously untreated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2017;18(10):1307-16.

212. Planchard D, Besse B, Groen HJM, Souquet PJ, Quoix E, Baik CS, et al. Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously treated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: an open-label, multicentre phase 2 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2016;17(7):984-93.

213. Shepherd FA, Crowley J, Van Houtte P, Postmus PE, Carney D, Chansky K, et al. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lung cancer staging project: proposals regarding the clinical staging of small cell lung cancer in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the tumor, node, metastasis classification for lung cancer. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2007;2(12):1067-77.

214. IASLC staging handbook in thoracic oncology.(ed Peter Goldstraw. IASLC 2009 (www.iaslc.org/IASLC-Handbook-Thoracic.html).

215. Lassen U, Osterlind K, Hansen M, Dombernowsky P, Bergman B, Hansen HH. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer: posttreatment characteristics in patients surviving 5 to 18+ years--an analysis of 1,714 consecutive patients. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1995;13(5):1215-20.

216. Lassen U, Kristjansen PE, Osterlind K, Bergman B, Sigsgaard TC, Hirsch FR, et al. Superiority of cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with teniposide and vincristine in the induction chemotherapy of small-cell lung cancer. A randomized trial with 5 years follow up. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 1996;7(4):365-71.

217. Okamoto H, Watanabe K, Kunikane H, Yokoyama A, Kudoh S, Asakawa T, et al. Randomised phase III trial of carboplatin plus etoposide vs split doses of cisplatin plus etoposide in elderly or poor-risk patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: JCOG 9702. British journal of cancer. 2007;97(2):162-9.

218. Skarlos DV, Samantas E, Kosmidis P, Fountzilas G, Angelidou M, Palamidas P, et al. Randomized comparison of etoposide-cisplatin vs. etoposide-carboplatin and irradiation in small-cell lung cancer. A Hellenic Co-operative Oncology Group study. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 1994;5(7):601-7.

219. Socinski MA, Weissman C, Hart LL, Beck JT, Choksi JK, Hanson JP, et al. Randomized phase II trial of pemetrexed combined with either cisplatin or carboplatin in untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2006;24(30):4840-7.

220. Witta S, Kelly K. Chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. In: Pass H, Carbone D, Minna J, Johnson D, Turrisi III A, eds. Lung cancer, principles and practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Willams & Wilkins; 2005:657-73.

221. Hermes A, Bergman B, Bremnes R, Ek L, Fluge S, Sederholm C, et al. Irinotecan plus carboplatin versus oral etoposide plus carboplatin in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a randomized phase III trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(26):4261-7.

222. Shao N, Jin S, Zhu W. An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing irinotecan/platinum with etoposide/platinum in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2012;7(2):470-2.

223. de Jongh CA, Wade JC, Finley RS, Joshi JH, Aisner J, Wiernik PH, et al. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole versus placebo: a double-blind comparison of infection prophylaxis in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1983;1(5):302-7.

224. Tjan-Heijnen VC, Postmus PE, Ardizzoni A, Manegold CH, Burghouts J, van Meerbeeck J, et al. Reduction of chemotherapy-induced febrile leucopenia by prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin in small-cell lung cancer patients: an EORTC double-blind placebo-controlled phase III study. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2001;12(10):1359-68.

225. Cullen M, Steven N, Billingham L, Gaunt C, Hastings M, Simmonds P, et al. Antibacterial prophylaxis after chemotherapy for solid tumors and lymphomas. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(10):988-98.

226. Cullen MH, Billingham LJ, Gaunt CH, Steven NM. Rational selection of patients for antibacterial prophylaxis after chemotherapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007;25(30):4821-8.

227. von Pawel J, Schiller JH, Shepherd FA, Fields SZ, Kleisbauer JP, Chrysson NG, et al. Topotecan versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine for the treatment of recurrent small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1999;17(2):658-67.

228. Eckardt JR, von Pawel J, Pujol JL, Papai Z, Quoix E, Ardizzoni A, et al. Phase III study of oral compared with intravenous topotecan as second-line therapy in small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007;25(15):2086-92.

229. O'Brien ME, Ciuleanu TE, Tsekov H, Shparyk Y, Cucevia B, Juhasz G, et al. Phase III trial comparing supportive care alone with supportive care with oral topotecan in patients with relapsed small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2006;24(34):5441-7.

230. Seifart U, Fink T, Schade-Brittinger C, Hans K, Mueller C, Koschel G, et al. Randomised phase II study comparing topotecan/carboplatin administration for 5 versus 3 days in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2007;18(1):104-9.

231. Seifart U, Jensen K, Ukena J, Mueller C, Schroder M, Fuhr HG, et al. Randomized phase II study comparing topotecan/cisplatin administration for 5 days versus 3 days in the treatment of extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lung cancer. 2005;48(3):415-22.

232. Castillo JJ, Vincent M, Justice E. Diagnosis and management of hyponatremia in cancer patients. Oncologist. 2012;17(6):756-65.

233. Lopez-Olivo MA, Shah NA, Pratt G, Risser JM, Symanski E, Suarez-Almazor ME. Bisphosphonates in the treatment of patients with lung cancer and metastatic bone disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(11):2985-98.

234. Henry DH, Costa L, Goldwasser F, Hirsh V, Hungria V, Prausova J, et al. Randomized, double-blind study of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer (excluding breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011;29(9):1125-32.

235. Scagliotti GV, Hirsh V, Siena S, Henry DH, Woll PJ, Manegold C, et al. Overall survival improvement in patients with lung cancer and bone metastases treated with denosumab versus zoledronic acid: subgroup analysis from a randomized phase 3 study. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2012;7(12):1823-9.

236. Ginsberg RJ, Vokes E, Ruben. Non-small cell lung cancer.  Cancer: principles and practice of oncology 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven. ; 1997. p. 858–911.

237. Chen CH, Wu BR, Cheng WC, Chen CY, Chen WC, Hsia TC, et al. Interventional pulmonology for patients with central airway obstruction: An 8-year institutional experience. Medicine. 2017;96(2):e5612.

238. Shapiro AK, Morris LA. The placebo effect in medical and psychological therapies. I: AE Bergin, SL Garfield (red.) Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1994.

239. Salander P, Henriksson R. Severely diseased lung cancer patients narrate the importance of being included in a helping relationship. Lung cancer. 2005;50(2):155-62.

240. McWilliam CL, Brown JB, Stewart M. Breast cancer patients' experiences of patient-doctor communication: a working relationship. Patient Educ Couns. 2000;39(2-3):191-204.

241. Wright EB, Holcombe C, Salmon P. Doctors' communication of trust, care, and respect in breast cancer: qualitative study. BMJ. 2004;328(7444):864.

242. Lilliehorn S, Hamberg K, Kero A, Salander P. 'Admission into a helping plan': a watershed between positive and negative experiences in breast cancer. Psychooncology. 2010;19(8):806-13.

243. Street RL, Jr., Makoul G, Arora NK, Epstein RM. How does communication heal? Pathways linking clinician-patient communication to health outcomes. Patient Educ Couns. 2009;74(3):295-301.

244. Perakyla A. Hope work in the care of seriously ill patients. Qual Health Res 1991;1:407-33.

245. Mendick N, Young B, Holcombe C, Salmon P. Telling "everything" but not "too much": the surgeon's dilemma in consultations about breast cancer. World J Surg. 2011;35(10):2187-95.

246. Ptacek JT, Eberhardt TL. Breaking bad news. A review of the literature. JAMA. 1996;276(6):496-502.

247. Mendick N, Young B, Holcombe C, Salmon P. The ethics of responsibility and ownership in decision-making about treatment for breast cancer: triangulation of consultation with patient and surgeon perspectives. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(12):1904-11.

248. Merckaert I, Libert Y, Messin S, Milani M, Slachmuylder JL, Razavi D. Cancer patients' desire for psychological support: prevalence and implications for screening patients' psychological needs. Psychooncology. 2010;19(2):141-9.

249. van Scheppingen C, Schroevers MJ, Smink A, van der Linden YM, Mul VE, Langendijk JA, et al. Does screening for distress efficiently uncover meetable unmet needs in cancer patients? Psychooncology. 2011;20(6):655-63.

250. Ito T, Shimizu K, Ichida Y, Ishibashi Y, Akizuki N, Ogawa A, et al. Usefulness of pharmacist-assisted screening and psychiatric referral program for outpatients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Psychooncology. 2011;20(6):647-54.

251. Wampold B. The great psychotherapy debate. London: Lawrence Earlbaum, 2001.

252. Hopwood P, Stephens RJ. Depression in patients with lung cancer: prevalence and risk factors derived from quality-of-life data. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2000;18(4):893-903.

253. Salander P. Motives that cancer patients in oncological care have for consulting a psychologist--an empirical study. Psychooncology. 2010;19(3):248-54.

254. Granberg D, Eriksson B, Janson ET, Oberg K, Skogseid B. [Lung carcinoids--not so benign as earlier believed]. Lakartidningen. 2006;103(34):2382-4.

255. Caplin ME, Baudin E, Ferolla P, Filosso P, Garcia-Yuste M, Lim E, et al. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors: European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society expert consensus and recommendations for best practice for typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2015;26(8):1604-20.

256. Bertino EM, Confer PD, Colonna JE, Ross P, Otterson GA. Pulmonary neuroendocrine/carcinoid tumors: a review article. Cancer. 2009;115(19):4434-41.

257. Poeppel TD, Binse I, Petersenn S, Lahner H, Schott M, Antoch G, et al. 68Ga-DOTATOC versus 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2011;52(12):1864-70.

258. Dalar L, Ozdemir C, Abul Y, Sokucu SN, Karasulu L, Urer HN, et al. Endobronchial Treatment of Carcinoid Tumors of the Lung. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;64(2):166-71.

259. Tabaksblat EM, Langer SW, Knigge U, Gronbaek H, Mortensen J, Petersen RH, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours: State of the art. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(1):3-14.

260. Wirth LJ, Carter MR, Janne PA, Johnson BE. Outcome of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors receiving chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Lung cancer. 2004;44(2):213-20.

261. Yao JC, Fazio N, Singh S, Buzzoni R, Carnaghi C, Wolin E, et al. Everolimus for the treatment of advanced, non-functional neuroendocrine tumours of the lung or gastrointestinal tract (RADIANT-4): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2016;387(10022):968-77.

262. Pavel ME, Hainsworth JD, Baudin E, Peeters M, Horsch D, Winkler RE, et al. Everolimus plus octreotide long-acting repeatable for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumours associated with carcinoid syndrome (RADIANT-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2011;378(9808):2005-12.

263. Fazio N, Granberg D, Grossman A, Saletan S, Klimovsky J, Panneerselvam A, et al. Everolimus plus octreotide long-acting repeatable in patients with advanced lung neuroendocrine tumors: analysis of the phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled RADIANT-2 study. Chest. 2013;143(4):955-62.

264. Ekeblad S, Sundin A, Janson ET, Welin S, Granberg D, Kindmark H, et al. Temozolomide as monotherapy is effective in treatment of advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2007;13(10):2986-91.

265. Lindholm DP FI, Antonodimitrakis P, Överg K, Eriksson B, Granberg D. Temozolomide in patients with metastatic bronchial carcinoids. J Thorac Oncol 2011;6(Suppl 2):S1373 (abstract). 2011.

266. Kulke MH, Stuart K, Enzinger PC, Ryan DP, Clark JW, Muzikansky A, et al. Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2006;24(3):401-6.

267. Koumarianou A, Antoniou S, Kanakis G, Economopoulos N, Rontogianni D, Ntavatzikos A, et al. Combination treatment with metronomic temozolomide, bevacizumab and long-acting octreotide for malignant neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012;19(1):L1-4.

268. Koumarianou A, Kaltsas G. Bevacizumab plus temozolomide: a novel treatment option for advanced neuroendocrine tumors? Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2013;31(7):975-6.

269. Van Essen M, Krenning EP, De Jong M, Valkema R, Kwekkeboom DJ. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(6):723-34.

270. Rossi G, Cavazza A, Spagnolo P, Sverzellati N, Longo L, Jukna A, et al. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia syndrome. European Respiratory Journal. 2016;47(6):1829-41.

271. Hillerdal G. Mesothelioma: cases associated with non-occupational and low dose exposures. Occupational and environmental medicine. 1999;56(8):505-13.

272. Adams VI, Unni KK. Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of pleura: diagnostic criteria based on an autopsy study. American journal of clinical pathology. 1984;82(1):15-23.

273. Rusch VW. A proposed new international TNM staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma. From the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Chest. 1995;108(4):1122-8.

274. Hillerdal G. Malignant mesothelioma 1982: review of 4710 published cases. British journal of diseases of the chest. 1983;77(4):321-43.

275. Scherpereel A, Astoul P, Baas P, Berghmans T, Clayson H, de Vuyst P, et al. Guidelines of the European Respiratory Society and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons for the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma. The European respiratory journal. 2010;35(3):479-95.

276. Stahel RA, Weder W, Lievens Y, Felip E, Group EGW. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2010;21 Suppl 5:v126-8.

277. Lee C, Bayman N, Swindell R, Faivre-Finn C. Prophylactic radiotherapy to intervention sites in mesothelioma: a systematic review and survey of UK practice. Lung cancer. 2009;66(2):150-6.

278. Vogelzang NJ, Rusthoven JJ, Symanowski J, Denham C, Kaukel E, Ruffie P, et al. Phase III study of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2003;21(14):2636-44.

279. Ceresoli GL, Zucali PA, Favaretto AG, Grossi F, Bidoli P, Del Conte G, et al. Phase II study of pemetrexed plus carboplatin in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2006;24(9):1443-8.

280. Castagneto B, Botta M, Aitini E, Spigno F, Degiovanni D, Alabiso O, et al. Phase II study of pemetrexed in combination with carboplatin in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 2008;19(2):370-3.

281. Zalcman G, Mazieres J, Margery J, Greillier L, Audigier-Valette C, Moro-Sibilot D, et al. Bevacizumab for newly diagnosed pleural mesothelioma in the Mesothelioma Avastin Cisplatin Pemetrexed Study (MAPS): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10026):1405-14.

282. Jassem J, Ramlau R, Santoro A, Schuette W, Chemaissani A, Hong S, et al. Phase III trial of pemetrexed plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care in previously treated patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(10):1698-704.

283. Maio M, Scherpereel A, Calabrò L, Aerts J, Cedres Perez S, Bearz A, et al. Tremelimumab as second-line or third-line treatment in relapsed malignant mesothelioma (DETERMINE): a multicentre, international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2017;18(9):1261-73.

284. Alley EW, Lopez J, Santoro A, Morosky A, Saraf S, Piperdi B, et al. Clinical safety and activity of pembrolizumab in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (KEYNOTE-028): preliminary results from a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2017;18(5):623-30.

285. Engels EA. Epidemiology of thymoma and associated malignancies. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2010;5(10 Suppl 4):S260-5.

286. Evoli A, Lancaster E. Paraneoplastic disorders in thymoma patients. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2014;9(9 Suppl 2):S143-7.

287. de Jong WK, Blaauwgeers JLG, Schaapveld M, Timens W, Klinkenberg TJ, Groen HJM. Thymic epithelial tumours: a population-based study of the incidence, diagnostic procedures and therapy. European journal of cancer. 2008;44(1):123-30.

288. Marx A, Chan JKC, Coindre J-M, Detterbeck F, Girard N, Harris NL, et al. The 2015 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Thymus: Continuity and Changes. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2015;10(10):1383-95.

289. Masaoka A, Monden Y, Nakahara K, Tanioka T. Follow-up study of thymomas with special reference to their clinical stages. Cancer. 1981;48(11):2485-92.

290. Detterbeck FC, Stratton K, Giroux D, Asamura H, Crowley J, Falkson C, et al. The IASLC/ITMIG Thymic Epithelial Tumors Staging Project: proposal for an evidence-based stage classification system for the forthcoming (8th) edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumors. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2014;9(9 Suppl 2):S65-72.

291. Marom EM. Imaging thymoma. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2010;5(10 Suppl 4):S296-303.

292. Detterbeck FC, Moran C, Huang J, Suster S, Walsh G, Kaiser L, et al. Which way is up? Policies and procedures for surgeons and pathologists regarding resection specimens of thymic malignancy. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2011;6(7 Suppl 3):S1730-8.

293. Falkson CB, Bezjak A, Darling G, Gregg R, Malthaner R, Maziak DE, et al. The management of thymoma: a systematic review and practice guideline. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2009;4(7):911-9.

294. Bhora FY, Chen DJ, Detterbeck FC, Asamura H, Falkson C, Filosso PL, et al. The ITMIG/IASLC Thymic Epithelial Tumors Staging Project: A Proposed Lymph Node Map for Thymic Epithelial Tumors in the Forthcoming 8th Edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2014;9(9 Suppl 2):S88-96.

295. Zahid I, Sharif S, Routledge T, Scarci M. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or transsternal thymectomy in the treatment of myasthenia gravis? Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. 2011;12(1):40-6.

296. Venuta F, Anile M, Diso D, Vitolo D, Rendina EA, De Giacomo T, et al. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. 2010;37(1):13-25.

297. Zhang H, Lu N, Wang M, Gu X, Zhang D. Postoperative radiotherapy for stage I thymoma: a prospective randomized trial in 29 cases. Chinese medical journal. 1999;112(2):136-8.

298. Detterbeck FC. Evaluation and treatment of stage I and II thymoma. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2010;5(10 Suppl 4):S318-22.

299. Rimner A, Yao X, Huang J, Antonicelli A, Ahmad U, Korst RJ, et al. Postoperative Radiation Therapy Is Associated with Longer Overall Survival in Completely Resected Stage II and III Thymoma-An Analysis of the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group Retrospective Database. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2016;11(10):1785-92.

300. Berman AT, Litzky L, Livolsi V, Singhal S, Kucharczuk JC, Cooper JD, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for completely resected stage 2 thymoma. Cancer. 2011;117(15):3502-8.

301. Riely GJ, Huang J. Induction therapy for locally advanced thymoma. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2010;5(10 Suppl 4):S323-6.

302. Fuller CD, Ramahi EH, Aherne N, Eng TY, Thomas CR, Jr. Radiotherapy for thymic neoplasms. Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. 2010;5(10 Suppl 4):S327-35.

303. Girard N. Thymoma: from chemotherapy to targeted therapy. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2012:475-9.

304. Girard N, Ruffini E, Marx A, Faivre-Finn C, Peters S, Committee EG. Thymic epithelial tumours: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 2015;26 Suppl 5(suppl 5):v40-55.

305. Berruti A, Borasio P, Gerbino A, Gorzegno G, Moschini T, Tampellini M, et al. Primary chemotherapy with adriamycin, cisplatin, vincristine and cyclophosphamide in locally advanced thymomas: a single institution experience. British journal of cancer. 1999;81(5):841-5.

306. Loehrer PJ, Chen M, Kim K, Aisner SC, Einhorn LH, Livingston R, et al. Cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide plus thoracic radiation therapy for limited-stage unresectable thymoma: an intergroup trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1997;15(9):3093-9.

307. Giaccone G, Ardizzoni A, Kirkpatrick A, Clerico M, Sahmoud T, van Zandwijk N. Cisplatin and etoposide combination chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic thymoma. A phase II study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Cooperative Group. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1996;14(3):814-20.

308. Lemma GL, Lee J-W, Aisner SC, Langer CJ, Tester WJ, Johnson DH, et al. Phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011;29(15):2060-5.

309. Palmieri G, Merola G, Federico P, Petillo L, Marino M, Lalle M, et al. Preliminary results of phase II study of capecitabine and gemcitabine (CAP-GEM) in patients with metastatic pretreated thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). Annals of Oncology. 2010;21(6):1168-72.

310. Loehrer PJ, Wang W, Johnson DH, Aisner SC, Ettinger DS, Trial ECOGPI. Octreotide alone or with prednisone in patients with advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II Trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22(2):293-9.

311. Palmieri G, Montella L, Martignetti A, Muto P, Di Vizio D, De Chiara A, et al. Somatostatin analogs and prednisone in advanced refractory thymic tumors. Cancer. 2002;94(5):1414-20.

312. Henley JD, Koukoulis GK, Loehrer PJ, Sr. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in invasive thymoma. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 2002;128(3):167-70.

313. Meister M, Schirmacher P, Dienemann H, Mechtersheimer G, Schnabel PA, Kern MA, et al. Mutational status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in thymomas and thymic carcinomas. Cancer letters. 2007;248(2):186-91.

314. Farina G, Garassino MC, Gambacorta M, La Verde N, Gherardi G, Scanni A. Response of thymoma to cetuximab. The Lancet Oncology. 2007;8(5):449-50.

315. Kelly RJ, Petrini I, Rajan A, Wang Y, Giaccone G. Thymic malignancies: from clinical management to targeted therapies. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011;29(36):4820-7.

316. Strobel P, Bargou R, Wolff A, Spitzer D, Manegold C, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, et al. Sunitinib in metastatic thymic carcinomas: laboratory findings and initial clinical experience. British journal of cancer. 2010;103(2):196-200.

317. Ströbel P, Bauer A, Puppe B, Kraushaar T, Krein A, Toyka K, et al. Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2004;22(8):1501-9.

318. Yen Y-T, Lai W-W, Chang K-W, Chang K-C, Lee S-C, Lin S-H, et al. Factors predicting recurrence and postrecurrence survival in completely resected thymic carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97(4):1169-75.